Cancer Genetics

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Most people have direct personal experience with cancer. Either they themselves, a family member, or a close friend has been affected by cancer.

Briefly review mitosis and the cell cycle.

Give an example of the interactions of pRB, E2F, Cyclin D1, and Cdk4.

Introduce Retinoblastoma.

Cdk and cyclin amplification (multiple copies) and hyperactivation (overexpression) to oncogenes.

Introduce p53.

The discovery of cyclins.

Cell cycle control regulatory network and Rube-Goldberg Machines

Self resetting machines.

wee1- rum1- double mutant.

Cancer is a breakdown of cellular cooperation in multicellular organisms.

Cells in multicellular organisms depend extensively on signals from other cells (like growth signals, cell death, etc.).

Example of Notch Delta

Enabling processes in the development of cancer.

Development of a benign tumor.

Transition of a benign tumor into a malignant tumor.

Two general gene categories, oncogenes and tumor suppressors.

What increases the rates of cancer?

Rous sarcoma virus example.

Inherited components versus environmental causes.

Lifetime risk of cancer.

Rates of cancer over the last 100 years.

The lag time between smoking and lung cancer.

Cancer incidence and age.

Cancer across the tree of life and Peto’s paradox.

References

  • Aktipis, C. A., Boddy, A. M., Jansen, G., Hibner, U., Hochberg, M. E., Maley, C. C., & Wilkinson, G. S. (2015). Cancer across the tree of life: cooperation and cheating in multicellularity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 370(1673), 20140219.
  • Callaway, E. (2015). How elephants avoid cancer. Nature, 1038, 18534.
  • Davidich, M. I., & Bornholdt, S. (2008). Boolean network model predicts cell cycle sequence of fission yeast. PloS one, 3(2), e1672.
  • Hanahan, D., Weinberg, R. A. (2000). The Hallmarks of Cancer. Cell 100(1): 57–70.
  • Hanahan, D., Weinberg, R. A. (2011). Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation. Cell 144(5): 646–674.
  • Sprinzak, D., Lakhanpal, A., LeBon, L., Garcia-Ojalvo, J., & Elowitz, M. B. (2011). Mutual inactivation of Notch receptors and ligands facilitates developmental patterning. PLoS computational biology, 7(6), e1002069.
  • Tyson JJ, Chen K, Novak B. Network dynamics and cell physiology. Natl Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2001;2(12):908–916. doi: 10.1038/35103078.
  • Weiss, R. A., & Vogt, P. K. (2011). 100 years of Rous sarcoma virus. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 208(12), 2351-2355.