Zuo, R., Örnek, D., & Wood, T. K. (2005). Aluminum-and mild steel-binding peptides from phage display. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 68(4), 505–509.
Using a phage library displaying random peptides of 12 amino acids on its surface, several peptides were found that bind to aluminum and mild steel. Like other metal-binding peptides, no obvious consensus motif has been found for these peptides. However, most of them are rich in hydroxyl-containing amino acids, serine or threonine, or contain histidine. For the aluminum-binding peptides, peptides with a higher number of hydroxyl-containing amino acids bind to the aluminum surface more tightly. For example, Val-Pro-Ser-Ser-Gly-Pro-Gln-Asp-Thr-Arg-Thr-Thr, which contains five hydroxyl-containing amino acid residues, was selected four-fold more frequently than a peptide containing only one serine, suggesting an important role for the hydroxyl-containing amino acids in the metal–peptide interaction.