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Seager, R. D., & Ayala, F. J. (1982). Chromosome interactions in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Viability studies. Genetics, 102(3), 467–483.
The nature of fitness interactions is an important, yet unsolved, question in population genetics. We compare the egg-to-adult viability of individuals homozygous for either a second or a third chromosome with the viability of individuals homozygous for both chromosomes simultaneously. On the average, the viability of the two-chromosome homozygotes is somewhat greater than expected assuming that the fitnesses of the single-chromosome homozygotes interact in a multiplicative fashion. This result differs from previous observations that indicate either no significant deviations from the expectation or lower-than-expected average fitnesses for the double homozygotes.